Hallmark Research Institute
  Providing Education and Resources for a Better Understanding and Recognition of Precious Metal Hallmarks Worldwide

Archived Hallmark Examples

These hallmarks were randomly posted on the home page and now archived here.
Hallmarks like these and many more can be found listed in Volume I and II of the
"World Hallmarks" book series, each available here.

Egyptian Silver Hallmark







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Egypt has been formally hallmarking precious metals for over a century. Their hallmark methodology is sequential and generally comprised of 3 components aligned as in the example to the left. To better understand each component of this Egyptian hallmark example the following is offered...

  1. This is the fineness hallmark that identifies the purity of the precious metal, in Arabic, as tested by the Egyptian Assay Office. The Arabic numerals here are a 9 and 0 - '90', (representing 90% or 900/1000). Above the fineness is the abbreviation, in Arabic, for the assay office that tested and hallmarked this item. In this case it is the abbreviation for the Cairo Assay Office where the item was hallmarked.
  2. The center hallmark shows the lotus flower, which Egypt uses as their country hallmark struck only on silver items from 1946 to date. Prior to the lotus, a cat in profile was used on silver from 1916-1945. (If the metal was gold their country mark would be a profile of the Larus Gull, a stork like shape.)
  3. On the right is the date hallmark representing the year the item was hallmarked. In the beginning, the year was represented by a letter from the English alphabet and changed every year. In 1940, the letters were changed to the Arabic alphabet and the changing of letters was not as strict. The letter in this example is the Arabic letter for 'sh' that was used from 1962-1964.

    (Look for more information on Egyptian hallmarks in the HRI's World Hallmarks - Vol II, pages 87-104.)


Czechoslovakia Silver Hallmark


The triangular shape of this hallmark is unique and identifiable for the region. The 'cross over three hills' design within the triangle was used from 1929-1941 in the area known at that time as Czechoslovakia.  The number 4 indicates the item is constructed of the fourth silver standard of the period - 835/1000 parts silver.

(For more information on this hallmark, consult page 70 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

French Gold & Platinum Hallmark


The eagle's head facing right hallmark is commonly seen on French made items of gold since 1838. It represents an item that has tested to be constructed of a minimum 18k or 750/1000 parts gold. The dog's head hallmark on the right is the French hallmark for platinum items that test to be a minimum of 950/1000 parts platinum introduced at the end of 1912.  These two together indicate that both metals are present in the piece. The order and orientation of the two hallmarks can provide more specifics on the ratios of the different metals that make up the item, as well.

(Consult page 115 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, for all the combinations of these hallmarks and their meanings.)


Poland Silver Hallmark


This hallmark was used in Poland from 1920 to 1931 on only silver items. The number 3 indicates the item is of the 3rd silver standard designation used at that time - 800/1000 parts silver. The W on the right side of the female's left facing profile indicates the item was hallmarked in the Warsaw Assay Office. The barrel shape outline tells us that the item marked weighs more than 10 grams.

(For more information on this hallmark, consult page 199 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

Czech and Slovak Republic Hallmark

Lisbon Hallmark


This rooster facing left  is an example of a more recent hallmark used by the Czech and Slovak Republics indicating a small domestic gold  article of the 3rd standard - 750/1000 parts  gold. This hallmark is one of  the few Czech and Slovakian hallmarks that has been in use since 1921 that  has remained unchanged. 

(For more information on this hallmark, consult page 76 & 279 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

Russian Hallmark

Russian Mark

This is an example of the inclusive design of the Soviet Russian hallmark. Contained within the rectangular (actually is a shovel shape) frame shape outline hallmark that exhibits 1) a Soviet hammer and sickle within the star shape, 2) the 583 is the Russian gold standard for 14k gold (583/1000), 3) a Cyrillic symbol to the left of the star represents the assay office where the item was marked - Tbilisi, in use from 1958 until 1994.
The second hallmark on the left, a pointed frame shape, is the maker's mark. The letters to the right are the unique initials of the maker with the number representing the date aspect of the mark. Do you know what is wrong with these stamps and why?  Email us, and let us what you think! 

(For more information on this hallmark, consult page 258 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

Austrian Hallmark

Austrian Mark


This single hallmark is inclusive in style by the fact that this hallmarks reveals that the item was imported to Austria after 1965 (the cocker spaniel image was used after 1965), the item was assayed in Salzburg (the S stands for the Salzburg Assay Office) and is of 14k gold. The number 4 stands for the 4th standard for gold in Austria which is 14k or 585/1000 parts gold.

(For more information on this hallmark, consult page 33 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

Iran Hallmark
French Import Mark


Often hallmarks are designed with imagery of landmarks, famous people or royalty, or, in this case, treasured national objects as their core image. This hallmark depicts a national treasure - the Pahlavi Crown of Iran. This crown hallmark was used in Iran from 1967 to the late 1970's. It would be stamped on gold  that would be either 917/1000 (22k) or 750/1000 (18k), differentiated by the frame.

(For more information on Iranian hallmarks, consult the HRI's second publication World Hallmarks - Vol II, on pages 129-134.)

Portugal Silver Hallmark

Lisbon Hallmark


This sitting boar is a hallmark from Portugal. The frame shape or outline of this hallmark indicates it was assayed in Lisbon between the years of 1886-1938. The II indicates the 2nd standard of silver - 833/1000. The design of this hallmark tells us that the item was a large silver object.

(For more information on this hallmark, consult page 211 & 215 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

French Gold Hallmark


As a left facing ram's head, this French hallmark was used from August  16, 1819 to May 9, 1838. Finding this mark indicates the item has  tested with limited warranty by touchstone to be a minimum of 18kt or 750/1000 parts gold. Origin of the  mark is Paris, France.   

French Trade Hallmarks



This left facing head of Mercury with the octagonal outline and scalloped corners was marked on large French silver items exported out of France between 1840 and 1879. It represents a metal content of either 750 gold or 950 silver, minimum.

(For more information on this hallmark, consult page 112 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

French Dept Mark





This French owl hallmark has been used since 1893. This owl in an oval frame shape hallmark represents a gold item that is imported from a country whose standards do not comply to French Customs fineness standards. Note the number on the owl's chest and read about it below.
(For more information on this hallmark, consult page 109 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

In a country that has numerous Assay Offices, it is common to use a secondary mark within the actual hallmark to indicate which Assay Office conducted assay testing and hallmarking of that item.  In France, there are numerous testing laboratories across the French Departments (states.)  Each office has its own unique symbol that they mark within the hallmark's frame or on the core image. The World Hallmark books utilizes a question mark (?) to indicate the location of this variable, if one so exists. In the illustration on the left the symbol is located on the owl's chest. In the photo above that graphic, the symbol is the number 75 which is a nationally recognized region number for Paris, hence representing the Assay Office located in the Paris Area.

Syria Hallmark


This hallmark is another example of a mark that reveals the town where the item was hallmarked. This image reveals, by the large Arabic abbreviation in the center of the oval, that this item was tested and hallmarked in Aleppo, Syria.  In the upper left corner of the oval are two digits in Arabic that represent a '2' and a '1' which means the item tested as a minimum of 21k gold.

(For more information on Syrian hallmarks, consult the HRI's second publication World Hallmarks - Vol II, pages 297-304.)

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